Another polygenetic view held that they were the product of an act, or acts, of creation separate to the one described in Genesis, with God creating different human beings according to the differing geomorphology of the various regions of the world.
In Europethe Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. He held that all races of men, before being fully civilized, had undergone an historical development through three successive levels of barbarism. European consumption patterns and social habits were increasingly shaped by new European expansion 15th and 16th centuries coming over from Asia, which came into vogue: Two prevalent attitudes towards the Native American quickly emerged.
Notable sporadic voyages, and diplomatic and religious missions had been undertaken in the 13th century to eastern Asiato the Mongolian Empire and to the court of the Great Khan, mainly by Italians.
Thematizing the ills of European society through the device of wise, honest and perceptive Mohawks, Hurons, Hottentots, Tahitians and even Incas, Mexicans, Persians and Chinese was common in literary writings, as well as in painting and European expansion 15th and 16th centuries productions.
Most historians locate in the 16th century the beginning, or at least the maturing, of Western capitalism. The Spanish, while also trying to gain access to the Indies, decided to sail west across the Atlantic Ocean.
In Europe, such encounters with "otherness" led to attempts to explain and interpret the origins and nature of racial and cultural linguistic, religious and social diversity. In Englandthe Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology.
Having been denied a place in the historiography of the Enlightenment and having been ignored by the Hegelian idealist philosophy of history, in the 19th century Africa continued to appear as a land of great contradictions to Europeans.
Financial crashes were common; the Spanish crown, the heaviest borrower in Europe, suffered repeated bankruptcies in—77,and Alexander and his army crossed the mountains to the Indus valley and then made a westward march from the lower Indus to Susa through the desolate country along the southern edge of the Iranian plateau; Nearchushis admiral, in command of the naval forces of the expedition, waited for the favourable monsoon and then sailed from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of the Euphrates, exploring the northern coast of the Persian Gulf on his way.
Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority- Sunni Muslim world.
Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. According to this attitude, the natives were fully human and thus had the capacity to acquire all the perceived benefits of European civilization, including Christian doctrine and, accordingly, salvation.
As Roman power grew, increasing wealth brought increasing demands for Oriental luxuries; this led to great commercial activity in the eastern seas. These authors depicted the various political entities between the Sublime Porte at Constantinople and the Qing court in Peking as being of a kind and characterized by despotic and arbitrary rule.
Exploring Africa Throughout the 19th century, European powers sent out explorers, scientific expeditions and military forces to establish their presence as colonial powers. Particularly interesting was the idea that in America the Europeans had moved not only in space, but also in time, encountering their own past.
Such encounters brought Europeans into contact with peoples which they believed had experienced little or no external contact before. According to this view, the "savage" societies were societies of uncorrupted virtue, love of liberty and pure, authentic customs.
The negative stereotype of the "ignoble savage" was a predictable result of persistent conflicts between aggressively expanding white settlements in North and South America, and in Australia, New Zealand and Africa, and the hunting or pastoral societies of nomadic aborigines, who were considered an obstacle to progress and civilization.
To Europeans, their social life seemed to lack rules and conventions for regulating sexual intercourse and family relationships. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy.
The newly encountered peoples of the Pacific were viewed as living proof of the superiority of Western civilization, though what was perceived as their benign innocence also elicited many sympathetic relativistic comparisons. The Arabs, most successful of all, dominated eastern sea routes from the 3rd to the 15th century.
The exploration of the coastlines of the Indian Ocean and the China Sea Trade, across the land bridges and through the gulfs linking those parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe that lie between the Mediterranean and Arabian seas, was actively pursued from very early times.
Statutes and Administration With the development of new forms of rule for its dominions and Crown colonies, the British Empire developed into a colonial mosaic.
The happiness of humans — a secular version of salvation — or the fulfilment of the providential or historical destiny of a people, were seen as being dependent on the accomplishment of "civilized" ways of life.
While several important travel accounts from the late 17th century offered a more nuanced view of western Africa with its political entities, and ethnic and historical complexities, Europeans continued to consider black Africans in terms of old stereotypes: But most Norsemen sailing in high latitudes explored not eastward but westward.Europe's colonial expansion, European countries began exploring and seeking to dominate the rest of the world during the 15th and 16th centuries, thanks to their ability to control sea routes and to the discovery of the American continent.
The Expansion of Europe. The Expansion of Europe. From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world. European Expansion: This map illustrates the main travels of the Age of Discovery, from The travel routes spanned between Europe and the eastern coast of.
European expansion in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries were led by the three main motives of God, glory, and gold. Books such as "Travels of John. European Encounters in the Age of Expansion. The first wave of expansion during the 15th and 16th centuries focused on three main areas.
The encounters which European expansion set in motion processes which resulted in a world increasingly defined by transcultural and transnational phenomena.
Start studying European Expansion. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. History of Europe - The emergence of modern Europe, – The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion.
This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. By the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation.Download